Andrew Carnegie did not marry until after the death of his Mother. After the death of his Mother, Carnegie married Louise Whitfield in 1886.
At the time, Carnegie was 51 and Louise was 30 years old. In 1897, the couple had their only child, a daughter named Margaret.
Carnegie made the majority of his fortune from his steel businesses. He is responsible for building the largest iron and steel empire in the history of the United States.
He was innovative in how he mass produced steel. One particular innovation he used was the Bessemer process, named after the Englishman Henry Bessemer, who patented the process in 1856.
The first inexpensive industrial process for producing steel, the Bessemer process allowed for mass production of steel. The process removed impurities from pig iron through oxidation, by using a Bessemer converter. This process was used before the open hearth furnace was developed.
Another innovation Carnegie used, which brought steel prices down, was the practice of vertical integration. Vertical integration exists when a company owns two or more stages of production normally operated by separate companies.
In the late 1880s, Andrew Carnegie was the largest producer of pig iron and coke in the world.
Carnegie bought Homestead Steel Works in 1883, which was supplied by a 425 mile long railway and a line of steamships. In addition, it was served by coal and iron fields.
By 1889, US steel output was greater than the United Kingdom and Carnegie’s empire was the greatest.
In 1892, Carnegie combined all his and associates assets into the Carnegie Steel Company.
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